2002 Annual Meeting

Special Lectures | Symposia | Education Program
Cajal Club | Platform Sessions | Poster Sessions

Special Lectures

Keynote Speaker - Sunday, April 21, 6:30-7:30 p.m
samuelSamuel M. McCann, M.D. (Pennington Biomedical Research Center; Louisiana State Univ)
'Nitric Oxide and Cytokines Mediate Responses to Stress and Inflammation'
Supported by an educational grant from JEOL USA, Inc.

A circadian rhythm of leptin (L) release in human and rat may be controlled by secretion of prolactin (PRL) since PRL stimulates L release and an inhibitor of PRL, bromocryptine, lowers it. Nitrate/nitrite (NO3/NO2) in plasma reflects production of NO ad the circadian rhythm of NO3/NO2 parallels that of L suggesting that L mediates the rhythm of NO production. Indeed, incubation of L with epididymal fat pads induces NO release.  Anesthesia decreases both plasma L and NO3/NO2 providing evidence of neural control of both. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rapidly releases TNF-a, progressively L and a delayed release of NO. Release of L and TNF-a are inhibited by bromocryptine or dexamethasone. Leptin release is pathophysiologically inhibited by adrenergic receptors. The TNF-a response to LPS is blocked by anesthesia and a b-adrenergic agonist, but is controlled by stimulatory, instead of inhibitory a-adrenergic receptors. The remarkable TNF-a response to surgical stress is delayed by anesthesia. Stress induces a rapid decline in plasma (NO3/NO2), caused by neurally mediated inhibition of NO synthase. Release of cytokines and NO is controlled by the CNS, although local control is exerted in tissues.

Pinckney J. Harman Memorial Lecture - Sunday, April 21, 5:30-6:30 p.m.
harmanCarla J. Shatz, Ph.D. (Dept. of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School)
'Neural Activity, Immune Genes and Synaptic Remodeling in Brain Development'
Connections in the adult CNS are highly precise.  In the visual system, retinal ganglion cells connect to target LGN neurons in adjacent, non-overlapping eye-specific layers.  During development, retinal inputs are intermixed and the layers emerge as axons from the two eyes remodel.  Remodeling requires ganglion cell  action potentials, which  are endogenously generated in utero long before rods and cones are present: ganglion cells fire spontaneously and synchronously, generating 'waves' of activity that sweep across retinal domains.  Waves are also required for regulation of gene expression by LGN neurons, including Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC I).  In mice lacking cell surface class I MHC, or CD3 zeta, development of the retinogeniculate projection is abnormal and adult mice have supranormal hippocampal LTP and lack LTD.  Thus, these molecules are required for normal activity-dependent structural and functional synaptic modifications.  These observations indicate that long before visual experience, nerve cell function is essential for activity-dependent gene expression and for the initial structural remodeling that leads ultimately to the adult precision of connectivity.

AAA Award Lectures
bensley R.R. Bensley Lecture in Cell Biology -Sunday, April 21, 2:00-3:00 p.m.,
Joseph P. Bidwell, Ph.D. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine)
'Involvement of the Nuclear Matrix in the Control of Skeletal Genes: The Nmp4 Transcription Factors'
Bone remodeling is under mechanical and hormonal control.  Nuclear matrix transcription factors may mediate skeletal remodeling by acting as architectural agents to transduce mechanical information from the cell periphery into changes in the promoter geometry of target genes.  The Nmp4/CIZ (Nmp4) proteins, for nuclear matrix protein-4, and cas-interacting-zinc finger protein were first identified in both the nuclear matrix and in the cytoplasm in association with p130cas, a component of the focal adhesions.  Nmp4 proteins contribute to the transcriptional regulation of type I collagen and several matrix metalloproteinases.  Nmp4 proteins contain a Cys2His2 zinc finger domain thus far unique in its capacity for binding to the minor groove of A-tract DNA, which itself may have a structural function.  The arrangement of the zinc fingers in the Nmp4 isoforms largely mediates their localization to specific nuclear matrix subdomains.  Nmp4 proteins have the capacity to alter DNA geometry and reciprocally respond to DNA as an allosteric ligand.  As such, the Nmp4 association with p130cas provides a potential pathway for transmission of mechanical information from the focal adhesions to the nuclear matrix.

herrickC.J. Herrick Lecture in Comparative Neuroanatomy-Monday, April 22, 2:00-3:00 p.m.
W. Martin Usrey, Ph.D. (Center for Neuroscience, Univ. of California, Davis)
'Functional Organization of Neural Circuits for Vision'
Within the visual system, response properties of neurons are dictated both by their anatomical organization of inputs and by the temporal patterns of impulse arrival. Recent advances in multielectrode technology have made it possible to study the role of both features in the same experiment. By recording the responses of synaptically connected neurons, in vivo, we can relate neural connection to neural function. In other words, we can identify the rules that govern connections between neurons, and how these connections determine new responses. The visual pathway is both divergent and convergent. Results show that divergence from retina to LGN serves to synchronize the firing of LGN neurons. Results also show that synchronous LGN spikes interact synergistically to drive cortical responses. Thus, two aspects of the anatomy of the visual pathway. divergent input to the LGN and reconvergent input to the visual cortex. have been found to have physiological counterparts: thalamic synchrony and thalamocortical synergy. This interplay of anatomy and physiology serves not only to reinforce the pathway from periphery to cortex, but also to provide the cortex with more information about the visual environment.

H.W. Mossman Lecture in Developmental Biology-Tuesday, April 23, 1:00-3:00 p.m.
Didier Y.R. Stainier, Ph.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco)
'Heart and Endoderm Formation in Zebrafish'
The vertebrate heart is a highly specialized blood vessel that initially consists of an inner layer of endothelial cells, the endocardium, and an outer layer of muscle cells, the myocardium.  We have taken a forward genetic approach in zebrafish to investigate how the heart develops.  One of the initial steps of heart formation is the migration of bilateral groups of myocardial cells to the midline where they assemble to form the linear heart tube.  We have identified 8 genes that when mutated block this migration process, resulting in the formation of two hearts, one on either side of the midline, a phenotype referred to as cardia bifida. Cardia bifida mutations can be divided into two main groups, 1) those that affect myocardial cell differentiation and subsequently their morphogenesis, and 2) those that affect myocardial cell migration.  The genes controlling myocardial cell migration can be further divided into A) those that affect endoderm formation and indirectly the migration of the underlying myocardial cells, and B) those that affect myocardial cell migration directly.  Detailed analyses of these genes has led to a better understanding of myocardial cell differentiation and migration as well as endoderm formation.

Lee Ann Niswander, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Lab)
'Molecular Control of Vertebrate Limb Development'
The developing vertebrate limb provides an excellent system to study the cellular and molecular interactions that are required to coordinate growth and patterning in three-dimensions.  Classical experimental embryology studies laid the framework for defining the molecules that control limb development.  Over the past 9 years, my lab has contributed to an understanding of the molecular nature of the signals that control limb growth and patterning along the proximal-distal (shoulder to digit) axis; limb patterning along the dorsal-ventral (back of hand to palm) axis; and programmed cell death.
I will also discuss two new directions my lab is taking to dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying limb development.  First is a genetic approach utilizing an ENU-derived mouse mutant that displays defects in limb patterning and growth. Second is an evo-devo approach using the bat limb as a model to understand the molecular control of morphological diversity.

Saturday Imaging Workshops-Saturday, April 20
Noninvasive Small Animal Imaging: How to Get Started-8:15-10:15 a.m.
Set-up & Funding of Core Imaging Facilities-10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m.

Speakers for these sessions are invited by the symposia chairs.



Chair: Marion (Emmy) Gordon, Ph.D. (Rutgers Univ. School of Pharmacy)
Supported by an educational grant from EntreMed, Inc. and Johnson & Johnson.
Tumors remain tiny and are growth inhibited unless they become vascularized. Therefore, a major goal in combating cancer is inhibiting angiogenesis at the site of a tumor. Emerging as a basic biological principal is that many endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are specific proteolytic fragments of large extracellular molecules. For example, angiostatin is derived from plasminogen, endostatin from collagen XVIII, and canstatin and tumstatin from different collagen IV alpha chains. Speakers will discuss how angiogenesis inhibitors are generated and processed, and will describe structure/function analyses that have led to defining antiangiogenic domains. A strategy to engineer a ligand for (Tissue Factor), a molecule expressed by the endothelium of blood vessels growing into tumors will also be discussed. The ligand, called an (icon), is designed to mobilize an immune attack against newly growing vessels, thereby starving the tumor of nutrients.

Alan Garen, Ph.D. (Yale University)
'Therapeutic Targeting of Tissue Factor on the Neovascular Endothelium with Factor VII Icons'
Marsha Moses (Children's Hospital, Harvard Univ.)
'Cryptic Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Structure-Function Analyses and Proteolytic Processing'
Raghu Kalluri, Ph.D. (Harvard Medical School)
'Regulations of Angiogensis by Type IV Collagen and Vascular Basement Membrane'
M. Judah Folkman, M.D. (Children's Hospital, Harvard Univ.)
'Discovery of Angiogenesis Inhibitors'

Chair: Paul Goetinck, Ph.D. (Harvard Medical School)
Co-sponsored by Developmental Dynamics

Hazel Sive (Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
'Anteroposterior Patterning in Xenopus: The Cement Gland as an Anterior Paradigm'
Charles Sagerstrom (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical School)
'The Role of Hox Cofactors in Hindbrain Development'
Gary C. Schoenwolf, Ph.D. (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine)
'Cell Interactions Defining Rostrocauda Patterning Along the Avian Neuraxis'
Alexandra Joyner (NYU School of Medicine)
'Formation of a Signaling Center that Patterns the Midbrain and Cerebellum in Mouse'

CELL SECRETION REVISITED-Monday, April 22, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Rooms 201/202
Chair: George Pappas, Ph.D. (Univ. of Illinois)
Secretion is the transfer across the cellular plasma membrane of material that is stored in a membrane-bound vesicle or granule.  This transmembrane traffic out of the cell is referred to as exocytosis.  Our views of secretion and exocytosis are based largely on morphological evidence.  In many cases, the interpretation of the secretory mechanism has had to rely on interpolation, rather then direct observation.  Recent observations, with new methods and tools, have prompted a provocative new interpretation of the fundamental process of secretion.  Speakers will look at tracking the secretory pathway in single, intact living cells with fluorescence and confocal microscopy; the use of atomic force microscopy changes that take place at the cell surface; evidence that postsynaptic quantal response does not come about by the exocytosis of a single presynaptic vesicle; and the Ca++ dynamics that are required to bring about secretion.  They will also discuss how their findings relate to bringing about newer concepts to understand secretion.

Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Ph.D. (NIH/NICHD)
'Rapid Cycling of Lipid Raft Markers Between the Cell Surface and Golgi Apparatus and Its Role in Membrane Sorting and Polarity'
Bhanu P. Jena, Ph.D. (Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine)
'Morphology and Dynamics of the Fusion Pore in Live Secretory Cells'
Mahlon Kriebel, Ph.D. (SUNY College of Medicine)
'Porocytosis: Array Model of Neurotransmitter Secretion'
Robert B. Silver, Ph.D. (Wayne State Univ. College of Medicine & MBL)
'New Insights on Secretion from Imaging Calcium Microdomains and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Modeling'

CORONARY VESSEL DEVELOPMENT-Wednesday, April 24, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 205
Chair: Takashi Mikawa, Ph.D. (Cornell Univ. Medical College)
Coronary circulation is critical for heart development and its survival. A better understanding of the unique developmental mechanisms underlying coronary vessel formation will likely provide important insights in promoting the growth of new coronary arteries in the mature heart.  Speakers will discuss the recently uncovered molecular mechanisms that regulate coronary vessel development.

Paul Krieg, Ph.D. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine)
'Endoderm is Not Required for Angioblast Specification, but is Essential for Vascular Tube Formation'
Takashi Mikawa, Ph.D. and David Pennisi (Cornell Univ. College of Medicine)
'Coronary Vessel Development'
David Bader, Ph.D. (Vanderbilt Univ.)
'Bves: A Novel Cell Adhesion Molecule Expressed During Coronary Vessel Development'
Robert Tomanek, Ph.D. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine)
'Growth Factor Regulation of Coronary Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis'

FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY: VISUALIZING GENETICS, PHYSIOLOGY & METABOLISM-Tuesday, April 23, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Rooms 201/202
Chair: David Lester, Ph.D. (Pharmacia Corp.)
Supported by an educational grant from the Society of Non-Invasive Imaging in Drug Development

G. Allan Johnson, Ph.D. (Duke Univ., Center for In Vivo Microscopy)
'Image Based Phenotyping: THE VISIBLE MOUSE'
Alan P. Koretsky, Ph.D. (NINDS)
'Anatomical, Functional and Molecular MRI of the Brain'
David Piwnica-Worms, Ph.D. (Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital)
'Visualizing Gene Expression and Protein Funtion In Vivo: Molecular Imaging Using PET and SPECT'
Babul Borah
'Three-dimensional Microimaging, Finite Element Modeling, and Rapid Protyping Provide Unique Insights Into Bone Architecture'

Co-chairs: Lynne Opperman, Ph.D. (Baylor College of Dentistry) and Mina Mina, DMD, MSD, Ph.D. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center)
Supported by an educational grant from Baylor College of Dentistry.
Development and growth of the craniofacial skeleton has been intensively studied for many years.  However, it is only in the last decade that molecular and cellular biological tools have been used to examine the regulatory mechanisms that guide craniofacial development and growth.  This symposium is designed to highlight current knowledge of craniofacial bone growth.  Participants will discuss advances in our understanding of the origins and movements of head skeletogenic cells, signaling networks regulating outgrowth and morphogenesis of the mandibular arch, regulation of palatal development and molecular pathways in cranial suture morphogenesis.

Drew Noden, Ph.D. (Cornell Univ. College of Veterinary Medicine)
'Origins and Movements of Head Skeletogenic Cells'
Mina Mina, DMD, MSD, Ph.D. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center)
'Signaling Networks Regulating Outgrowth and Morphogenesis of the Mandibular Arch'
Charles Shuler, DMD, Ph.D. (Univ. of Southern California)
'Regulation of Palatal Development'
Lynne Opperman, Ph.D. (Baylor College of Dentistry)
'Molecular Pathways in Cranial Suture Morphogenesis'

HISTOMORPHOMETRY OF TISSUE ENGINEERED GRAFTS-Wednesday, April 24, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 204
Chair: David Dean, Ph.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ.)
Tissue engineering attempts to extend the healing process beyond what is naturally possible. Goals range from development of new organ function to guided tissue repair. Tissue engineering draws on the anatomist. s keen understanding of the histological evidence for tissue proliferation and maturation. Demonstration of experimental success requires at least four dimensions of histological quantification: First, prior to implantation we may wish to measure the size and distribution (geometry) of graft scaffold surfaces and pores. Second, we may wish to measure the specificity, rate, and location of cell attachment within those scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo. Third, it may be useful to utilize non-destructive mechanical verification of critical neo-tissue function in order to subsequently pursue histological analysis of the same explants. Finally, we may wish to measure the rate and location of tissue proliferation and maturation, perhaps through the use of fluorescent probes that verify gene expression associated with developmental processes. The speakers will explore and discuss cutting edge technology for implant and explant mechanical and histological measurement, including non-destructive biomechanical characterization and three dimensional visualization and quantitation of scaffold porosity, cell attachment, gene expression, and tissue proliferation and maturation.

David Dean, Ph.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ.)
'Non-destructive Biomechanical Testing of Tissue Engineered Grafts'
Jizong Gao, M.D., Ph.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ.)
'Tissue Engineered Osteochondral Composite Graft Using Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells'
Tony Mikos (Rice Univ.)
'Biomimetic Polymer Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering'
Jennifer West (Rice Univ.)
'Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts: Effects of Bioactive Scaffolds and Mechanical Stimulation'


IMAGING TECHNIQUES IN LIVE EMBRYOS-Tuesday, April 23, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Rooms 201/202
Chair: Stephen Moorman, Ph.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ.)
The past decade has seen the zebrafish become solidly established as a model system for the study of embryonic development.  The readily available, translucent embryos are quite amenable to visualizing developmental events in live embryos.  As a result, zebrafish are now used extensively for studies examining a wide range of aspects of embryonic development and significant advances have been made on a number of fronts including but not limited to determination of the embryonic axis, cell lineage analysis, formation of the central and peripheral nervous systems, muscle development and the differential regulation of gene expression.  This symposium will present a variety of different imaging techniques that range from gfp as a reporter-gene, to visualizing neuronal growth cones during pathfinding.  Each different imaging technique will be presented within the context of a current question in developmental biology.

Diane Slusarski, Ph.D. (Univ. of Iowa)
'Mechanisms of Calcium Signaling in Zebrafish Development'
Chi-Bin Chien, Ph.D. (Univ. of Utah Medical Center)
'Imaging and Perturbing Retinal Growth Cone Behavior In Vivo'
Joseph Fetcho, Ph.D. (State Univ. of New York)
'Combining Optical and Genetic Approaches to Study Neuronal Circuits in an Intact Vertebrate'
Brant Weinstein, Ph.D. (NICHD, NIH)
'Imaging Blood Vessel Development in the Zebrafish'

Chair: Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Ph.D. (Univ. of Antwerpen, Belgium)
Co-sponsored by the Anatomical Record
A large variety of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological stimuli elicit different patterns of afferent activity initiated by different types of afferent receptors. At least four types of sensory receptors have been identified so far within trachea and bronchi: slowly adapting receptors (SARs); rapidly adapting receptors (RARs); C-fibres endings; and putative intrapulmonary oxygen sensors, the so-called neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs). Speakers will discuss our current knowledge on the functional morphology and physiology of these receptors under normal and inflammatory conditions. An important aspect that will additionally be highlighted is the close functional cooperation between the arterial and airway chemo receptors.

Edward S. Schelegle, Ph.D. (Univ. of California, Davis)
'Functional Morphology and Physiology of Slowly Adapting Pulmonary Stretch Receptors'
John Widdicombe, MD, Ph.D. (GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, London, UK)
'Functional Morphology and Physiology of Pulmonary RARs'
Lu-Yuan Lee, Ph.D. (Univ. of Kentucky)
'Functional Morphology, Physiological Properties of Bronchopulmonary C-Fiber Afferents'
Dirk Adriaensen, Ph.D (Univ. of Antwerpen, Belgium)
'Functional Morphology of Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Bodies. Extremely Complex Airway Receptors'
Paul Kemp, Ph.D. (Univ. Leeds, UK)
'Physiology and Molecular Biology of Pulmonary Epithelial Bodies'
Hildegard M. Schuller, DVM, Ph.D. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville)
'Receptor-mediated Effects of Tobacco Toxicants on Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells'

Chair: Robert Specian, Ph.D. (LSU Health Science Center)
Speakers: TBA

Chair: Kathy Jones, Ph.D. (Loyola Univ., Chicago, School of Medicine)
Supported by an educational grant from the Neuroscience & Aging Institute and the Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy, Loyola Univ., Stritch School of Medicine
Olfactory ensheathing cells represent a population of macroglia with significant potential in the treatment of spinal cord injury.  The biology of this cell type is currently a topic of considerable interest and investigation.  In this symposium, speakers will provide an overview of the cell biology of olfactory ensheathing cells, neurotrophic factor-secreting properties of these cells in culture, remyelinating properties of these cells transplanted into the injured spinal cord, and the ability of these cells to promote functional recovery from spinal cord injury in rodent models.

Ronald Doucette, Ph.D. (Univ. of Saskatchewan)
'Olfactory Ensheathing Cells: Past, Present, and Future'
Tracey McCarthy DeLucia (Loyola Univ., Chicago, School of Medicine)
'Neurotrophic Properties of an Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Line'
Robin Franklin, Ph.D. (Univ. of Cambridge)
'The Remyelinating Properties of Transplanted Olfactory Ensheathing Cells'
Almudena Ramon-Cueto, Ph.D. (Lab. of Neural Regeneration of Biomedicine, Spanish Council for Scientific Research)
'Olfactory Ensheathing Glia Transplants to Repair Spinal Cord Traumatic Injuries in Adult Mammals'

REGULATION OF CARDIAC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT-Tuesday, April 23, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 204
Co-chairs: Yukiko Sugi, Ph.D. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina) and Michiko Watanabe, Ph.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine)
Heart is the first organ to form and function during embryogenesis.  Recent progress in heart development research using genetics and molecular techniques has provided us a new understanding of cardiac growth and development.   This session covers events from the initiation of the heart formation through its remodeling into a multichambered organ.   Speakers will address the mechanisms of cardiac growth and development based on their recent data, e.g. regulation of cardiac muscle formation by Wnt antagonists, analysis of heart defects in lim-homeobox protein mutant mice, gene regulation of transcription factor GATA 4/5/6, and transcriptional regulation of the determination of endocardial endothelial cells.

Mark Mercola, Ph.D. (Harvard Medical School)
'Wnt Antagonism and the Initiation of Embryonic Cardiogenesis'
Sylvia Evans, Ph.D. (UCSD)
'A Lim-Homeobox Protein is Required for Heart Development'
John Burch, Ph.D. (Fox Chase Cancer Center)
'GATA Gene Regulation and Heart Development'
H. Scott Baldwin, M.D. (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Univ. of Pennsylvania)
'Transcriptional Regulation of the Endocardium as a Unique Endothelial Cell Population'

IMAGING WORKSHOP: SET-UP & FUNDING OF CORE IMAGING FACILITIES-Saturday, April 20, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 206
Chair: Kathy K.H. Svoboda, Ph.D. (Baylor College of Dentistry)
This workshop will cover several methods for obtaining funds for large equipment with Dr. Marjorie Tingle from NIH and Dr. Lawrence Fritz from NSF.  In addition, Dr. Simon Watkins will discuss how to manage a large imaging facility and find non federal funding for equipment.  Dr. Svoboda will round out the workshop with some practical tips for managing a small imaging facility.

Marjorie Tingle, Ph.D. (NIH National Center for Research Resources)
'Instrumentation and Emerging Technologies: NIH Funding Opportunities'
Lawrence Fritz, Ph.D. (Division of Biological Infrastructure, National Science Foundation)
'NSF Funding: Opportunities and Process'
Simon Watkins, Ph.D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh)
'Never a Round Peg in a Square Hole: Large Centralized Imaging Facilities'
Kathy K.H. Svoboda, Ph.D. (Baylor College of Dentistry)
'Managing a Small Core Facility and Maintaining Your Sanity'

SEX HORMONES & THE PLASTIC BRAIN-Monday, April 22, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 205
Supported by an educational grant from the Neuroscience & Aging Institute and the Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy, Loyola Univ., Stritch School of Medicine  
Chair: Lydia DonCarlos, Ph.D. (Loyola Univ. Chicago Medical Center)
Gonadal steroid hormones have a profound impact on the developing brain, modifying the architecture and function of many brain regions. The prevailing dogma has been that estrogens, derived from circulating testosterone, masculinize the brain via actions on estrogen receptors.  Studies within the last five years have provided exciting additional dimensions to this story. This symposium will address new findings that an orphan steroid receptor plays a fundamental, as opposed to modulatory, role in neural pattern formation and that the development of sex differences in the brain depends on factors other than circulating gonadal hormones of fetal origin. Also to be addressed are the important implications of these developmental studies for current studies on the life-long neuroprotective role of gonadal steroids in the brain.

Christine Wagner, Ph.D. (SUNY at Albany)
'Progesterone Receptors and Sexual Differentiation of the Developing Brain'
Manfred L. Gahr, M.D. (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam)
'Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Relation to Developmental and Adult Plasticity in the Vocal Control System'
Stuart A. Tobet, Ph.D. (Shriver Ctr. for Mental Retardation)
'Potential Role for Orphan Steroid Receptors in the Embryonic Murine Preoptic Area and Hypothalamus'
Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Ph.D. (Cajal Inst., Madrid)
'Neuroprotection by Estradiol: Role of Brain Aromatase and Interaction with Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Signaling'

SKELETAL MUSCLE DIFFERENTIATION-Monday, April 22, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 204
Chair: Wade Grow, Ph.D. (Midwestern Univ.)
Co-sponsored by the AAA Advisory Committee for Young Anatomists
Skeletal muscle differentiation involves a complex sequence of events beginning with myotome growth and morphogenesis in the embryo.  Exciting new research from young investigators will discuss recent advances in our understanding of skeletal muscle differentiation.  These include a signaling role in myotome development, a calcium role in myofibril assembly, and a gene therapy approach to reducing muscle disease.  AAA. s Advisory Committee of Young Anatomists sponsors this symposium.

Charles Ordahl, Ph.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco and Anatomix)
'Embryonic Myotome Growth Morphogenesis'
Wilfred F. Denetclaw, Jr. , Ph.D. (San Francisco State Univ.)
'The Development of Medically Located Cytonemes and Filopodia in the Somitic Dermomyotome Suggests a Signal Transduction Role in Myogenesis'
Michael B. Ferrari, Ph.D. (Univ. of Missouri)
'Assembling the Vertebrate Myofibril: Calcium as a Construction Tool'
Dean J. Burkin, Ph.D. (Univ. of Illinois)
'Integrin-mediated Complementary Gene Therapy in Muscle Disease'

Chair: David Burr, Ph.D. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine)
Co-sponsored by the Association of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Neurobiology Chairs
The utility of stem cell biology in future therapeutic treatments is widely recognized.  Stem cells will be modified and reprogrammed to treat a diverse set of diseases and injuries including Parkinson. s disease, spinal cord injuries, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal conditions, among others. This symposium will summarize some of the most recent and important advances in this dynamic area.  New subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells have been identified that may improve engraftment over mature stem cells. Specific signaling pathways and processes of cell differentiation may play a role in tissue regeneration. Human mesencephalic stem cells may be used as a treatment for Parkinson. s Disease. Neural stem cells may play a role in protein delivery, can repopulate ablated neural tissue, and may be effective in combination with gene therapy approaches in repairing damaged CNS. This symposium will provide a foundation for understanding stem cell biology and the potential uses of stem cells in therapeutic treatments.

Darwin J. Prockop, M.D., Ph.D. (Center for Gene Therapy)
'Characterization and Potential Therapeutic Uses of Adult Stem Cells from the Bone Marrow Stroma'
Mark Pittenger, Ph.D. (Osiris Therapeutics Inc.)
'Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Tissue Regeneration'
Paul M. Carvey, Ph.D. (Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's)
'Stem Cells as a Treatment for Parkinson's Disease'
Evan Snyder, M.D., Ph.D. (Harvard Medical School)
'The Developmental Biology of Neural Stem Cells May Make Them Ideally Suited for CNS Repair'

Education Program

ANATOMY EDUCATION FOR OTHER PROFESSIONALS-Tuesday, April 23, 3:00-5:00 p.m., Room 206
Co-Chairs: Richard Drake, Ph.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine) and Jane Scott, Ph.D. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine)
Numerous professions require an understanding of anatomy.  Providing students with this basic understanding is the goal of the educator.  While the vocational direction may vary, the academic goal remains the same:  To provide students with a strong foundation in anatomy.  The purpose of this symposium is to bring together educators from different academic environments to share ideas, techniques, and experiences with the hope of learning from one another.

Judy Provo-Klimek, Ph.D. (Kansas State Univ. College of Veterinary Medicine)
'Gross Anatomy: Education in Veterinary Medicine'
Gene Giggleman, D.V.M. (Parker College of Chiropractic)
'The Unique Challenges Faced in Teaching Anatomy to Chiropractic Students'
Buddy Landry, Instuctor (Central Louisiana School of Therapeutic Massage)
'Anatomy as a Map for the Hands'
William Perrotti (President, HAPS, Mohawk Valley Community College)
'An Innovative Approach to an Undergraduate Anatomy Laboratory Experience'

ANATOMY EDUCATION BREAKFAST ROUNDTABLES-Monday, April 22, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 206
Chair: Richard Drake, Ph.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine)

ANATOMY FOR 21ST CENTURY DENTISTS-Tuesday, April 23, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 206
Chair: Geoffrey Guttmann, Ph.D. (Univ. of Saskatchewan College of Medicine)

Terence P. Ma, Ph.D. (Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center)
'Making Gross Anatomy Relevant to Dental Students'
Brian R. MacPherson, Ph.D. (Univ. of Kentucky College of Medicine)
'Enhancing the Dental Histology Curriculum'
Kathleen M. Klueber, Ph.D. (Univ. of Louisville)
'Neurosciences for the Dentist in the 21st Century'
Geoffrey H. Sperber, B.D.S., M. Sc., Ph.D. (Univ. of Alberta)
'Fabricating a Face: The Essence of Embryology in the Dental Curriculum'
Geoffrey Guttmann, Ph.D. (Univ. of Saskatchewan College of Medicine)
'Are Canadian and American Dental Schools Anatomical Sciences Curricula Really Different?'

ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: A REFRESHER COURSE-Saturday, April 20, 2:00-4:30 p.m., Room 206
Co-chairs: Gary Mawe, Ph.D. (Univ. of Vermont) and Raymond Papka, Ph.D. (Northeastern Ohio Univ. College of Medicine)
Supported by an educational grant from Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
The nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract is unique in its diversity of neuronal subtypes, neurotransmitters, and receptors, and in its ability to generate reflex activity in the absence of input from the central nervous system.  Despite these distinctive properties of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its importance in the regulation of gut function, many instructors have not emphasized the ENS because they do not have a good grasp of how it is organized and how it functions.  This refresher course is designed to familiarize educators and interested investigators with relevant topics in enteric neurobiology.  The participants are internationally recognized experts in enteric neurobiology who will provide general overviews of topics that include ENS circuitry, ENS development, ENS physiology, how the central nervous system influences ENS function, neuroimmune interactions in the bowel, and gastrointestinal disorders that involve the ENS.

Michael Gershon, M.D. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons)
'Development of the Enteric Nervous System'
Jackie Wood, Ph.D. (The Ohio State Univ.)
'Enteric Neurophysiology'
Pamela Hornby, Ph.D. (LSU Health Science Center)
'How the CNS and ENS Communicate About the Gut'
Keith Sharkey, Ph.D. (Univ. of Calgary)
'Neuro Immune Interactions in the Gut'
Peter Moses, M.D., F.A.C.G. (Univ. of Vermont)
'Enteric Neurobiology: A Clinician's Perspective'

HOW DO WE LOCATE, CULTIVATE, & ADMIT IDEAL MEDICAL STUDENTS-Sunday, April 21, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 206
Co-chairs: Deborah Vaughan, Ph.D. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine) and Sue Ann Miller, Ph.D. (Hamilton College)
Concepts of what skills and personal characteristics are advantageous to practice medicine successfully in the current health care system have evolved over recent decades, and so have the curricula at many medical schools that train our future physicians. The educators and advisors who nurture and direct the undergraduate premedical students should be aware of what medical schools seek in their attempt to identify individuals who will be successful medical students and physicians. Participants in this symposia are all educators of our students; they describe their various advisory roles and overlapping experiences that together represent several stages in a student. s journey to a career in medicine: undergraduate premedical educator, preprofessional advisor, advisor to nontraditional premedical students, and medical school admissions officer. Our participants offer broad perspectives because they reflect some of the geographical and community diversity of medical school applicants: the small private liberal arts college in rural New York, the private largely African-American university in New Orleans, the large diverse private university and medical school in Boston, and the University of California Medical School at Irvine.

Sue Ann Miller, Ph.D. (Hamilton College)
'Connecting Undergraduate Students With What Is Important for a Medical Career'
J.W. Carmichael, Ph.D. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana)
'Xavier's Educational Pathway Into the Biomedical Sciences'
Paul O'Bryan, Ph.D. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine)
'Premedical Advising and Beyond'
Ralph Purdy, Ph.D. (Univ. of California-Irvine College of Medicine)
'Characteristics of the Ideal Medical School Applicant'


Cajal Club Program

CAJAL CLUB KRIEG CORTICAL KUDOS 2002 AWARDS-Sunday, April 21, 8:30-11:30 a.m., Rooms 201/202
Krieg Cortical Discover Awardees:
David Van Essen, Ph.D. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, School of Medicine)
'Mapping Structure and Function in Cerebral Cortex: A Cortical Cartographer's View of the Past, Present and Future'
My laboratory uses anatomical, physiological, and computational approaches to study primate cerebral cortex, especially visual cortex.  This presentation will emphasize our efforts in computerized cortical cartography, where the broad objectives are to (i) map cortical structure and function in individuals; (ii) map data onto atlases while respecting individual variability; and (iii) analyze interspecies similarities and differences in cortical organization.  Surface reconstructions and surface-based atlases are key to this effort, as they aid greatly in dealing with complex cortical convolutions.  The potential of this approach will be illustrated using surface-based atlases for cerebral and cerebellar cortex in mouse, macaque, and human.  Utilization of these web-accessible atlases with a growing set of visualization and analysis tools should accelerate our understanding of cerebral cortex, which in many respects is as rudimentary as that of 17th-century cartographers striving to map the earth. s surface. 

Thomas Woolsey, M.D. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, School of Medicine)
'Whiskers and Barrels'
 Mapping the brain to understand its function has long been a central theme for what is now called neuroscience/neurobiology.  Functional localization led to the discovery of a visible body map in somatosensory cortex of the mouse. The map is comprised of multicellular units . called barrels . many of which are related directly to whiskers on the opposite side of the animal that are part of modular cortical columns (found in all mammals including man).  Advantages of this pattern for studies of the function, development, and plasticity of the central nervous system in rodent models have been amply demonstrated. Other work has uncovered the mechanism for activity based changes in cerebral blood flow that are the bases for functional imaging studies in humans.  The richly detailed information now available on the whisker/barrel system opens doors to studies of genes in nervous system development and function, several models of and treatments for diseases afflicting the brain and relationships between brain function and behavior. Some examples will be discussed.
Supported in part by The Spastic Paralysis Foundation of Illinois Eastern Iowa District of the Kiwanis International.

Krieg Cortical Explorer Awardees
László Acsády, Ph.D. (Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences)
'A Unique Gyrus--Unusual Properties of Neocortex-Archicortex Interface'
Dentate gyrus is a peculiar one-way relay station that transmits neocortical information to the Ammon. s horn of hippocampal formation. This evolutionary conserved region possesses a number of distinguishing characteristics not found in any other cortical region. Here I propose that these features are specialized to translate neocortical firing pattern to archicortical activity that can be used by subsequent stations of hippocampal trisynaptic loop. The unique wiring system of the dentate gyrus results in one of the strongest inhibitory control of principal cells in cortical systems. The recruitment of inhibition by granule cells is facilitated by two wiring characteristics. First, granule cells innervate more inhibitory than excitatory neurons, second, innervation of hilar interneurons by basket cells are exceptionally sparse. Strong inhibitory action is necessary to produce sparse, discrete neuronal coding. Indeed, the dentate gyrus appears to transform the noisy spatial signal of the entorhinal cortex into the most discrete spatial code in the hippocampal formation. I suggest that the strong activation of inhibitory circuits in the dentate gyrus is optimized to convert a denser cortical code into a sparse hippocampal representation.

Gábor Tamás, Ph.D. (Univ. of Szeged, Hungary)
'Processing of Convergent Information in Identified Cortical Networks'
How cortical neurons integrate inputs and how neuronal output reflects input activity are key questions for the explanation of cortical function. To address the rules of input summation experimentally, we simultaneously recorded from three neocortical neurons in vitro and investigated the effect of the subcellular position of two convergent inputs on the response summation in the common target cell. When scattered over the postsynaptic dendrites, combination of coincident excitatory and/or inhibitory synaptic potentials summed linearly. Slightly sublinear summation was observed when convergent inputs targeted closely placed sites on the postsynaptic neuron. The kinetics and the degree of linearity of summation also depended on the type of connection, the relative timing of inputs and on the activation state of Ih. The results suggest that, when few inputs are active, the majority of afferent permutations undergo linear integration, maintaining the importance of individual inputs. However, compartment and connection specific nonlinear interactions between synapses located close to each other could increase the computational power of individual neurons in a cell type specific manner.

Krieg Cortical Scholar Award:
Michelle Adams, Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brown Univ.)
'The Aging Synapse: Preservation and Alterations in Synaptic Proteins'
Endocrine and neural senescence converge in the hippocampus, particularly with respect to the glutamatergic synapse. For example, dendritic spine density in CA1 increases with estrogen (E2) treatment in young animals, but there is an overall loss of spines in the aged hippocampus, that is not reversible with E2. NMDA antagonists block increases in spine density, suggesting a role for glutamate receptors (GluRs) in regulating morphological plasticity. Thus, we examined changes in the distribution of synaptic proteins that might be under the influence of age and E2, including GluRs and the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-a). Our data indicated that while spine density decreases in the aged hippocampus, GluR levels are relatively preserved in the aged brain. However, synaptic plasticity manifested at the level of the GluR is regulated differently in the aged as compared to the young hippocampus. Also, there are age-related changes in ER-a that may underlie the attenuated aged spine response, particularly to E2-induced plasticity. Thus, the aged synapse may be different from the young synapse in several key respects that impact plasticity, particularly endocrine influences on the synapse.

THE NISSL BODY'S POSTER SESSION-Sunday, April 21, 12:30-2:00 p.m., Rooms 201/202
Chair: John Morrison, Ph.D. (Mt. Sinai School of Medicine)

Chair: Charles Ribak, Ph.D. (Univ. of California, Irvine)
The entorhinal cortex sits adjacent to the hippocampus and has extensive projections with this structure and the neocortex. It has  been shown to play a role in the formation of new associative memories and to degenerate in certain neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. Speakers will discuss the normal connections and organization of the entorhinal cortex paying particular attention to the roles of projection neurons in different layers of this structure; the changes in neuronal activity within the entorhinal cortex during a behavioral task performed by monkeys; the pathology observed after epilepsy and its relationship to excitatory neurotransmitters; and the appearance and chemical composition of neurofibrillary tangles, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, within neurons of entorhinal cortex.

Wendy Suzuki, Ph. D. (New York Univ.)
'Memory Signals in the Macaque Monkey Entorhinal Cortex'
Angel Alonso, Ph.D. (Montreal Neurological Institute)
'Mechanisms and Function of Oscillatory Activity in Entorhinal Cortex'
Patrick Hof, M.D. (Center for Neurobiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine)
'The Entorhinal Cortex in the Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease: Comparison with the Neo Cortex'
Robert Schwarcz, Ph.D. (Maryland Psychiatric Research Center)
'Entorhinal Excitement and Epilepsy'

Pinckney J. Harman Memorial Lecture - Sunday, April 21, 5:30-6:30 p.m., Room 206
Carla J. Shatz, Ph.D. (Dept. of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School)
'Neural Activity, Immune Genes and Synaptic Remodeling in Brain Development'
Connections in the adult CNS are highly precise.  In the visual system, retinal ganglion cells connect to target LGN neurons in adjacent, non-overlapping eye-specific layers.  During development, retinal inputs are intermixed and the layers emerge as axons from the two eyes remodel.  Remodeling requires ganglion cell  action potentials, which  are endogenously generated in utero long before rods and cones are present: ganglion cells fire spontaneously and synchronously, generating 'waves' of activity that sweep across retinal domains.  Waves are also required for regulation of gene expression by LGN neurons, including Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC I).  In mice lacking cell surface class I MHC, or CD3 zeta, development of the retinogeniculate projection is abnormal and adult mice have supranormal hippocampal LTP and lack LTD.  Thus, these molecules are required for normal activity-dependent structural and functional synaptic modifications.  These observations indicate that long before visual experience, nerve cell function is essential for activity-dependent gene expression and for the initial structural remodeling that leads ultimately to the adult precision of connectivity.

Platform Sessions
Presentations selected from submitted abstracts.
*Langman Semi-finalist

CELL SIGNALING IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DIFFERENTIATION-Monday, April 22, 10:45 a .m.-12:45 p.m., Room 204
Chair: Mark Nathanson, Ph.D. (UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School)

M. Nathannson (UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School)
R.L. Jilka (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
Q. Chen (Penn State College of Medicine)
D. Sassoon (Mount Sinai School of Medicine)
B.L. Martin (Univ. of California at Berkley)
M.P. Ontell (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine)
R. Welikson (Univ. of Washington)

CELL SIGNALING IN SENSORY SYSTEMS-Tuesday, April 23, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 205
Co-chairs: Judy Garner, Ph.D. and Hans-Jurgen Fulle (Keck School of Medicine at USC)

H.J. Fulle (Keck School of Medicine at USC)
R.H. Kramer (Univ. of California, Berkley)
F. Kalinec (House Ear Institute)
*B.A. Puder (Northeastern Ohio Univ. College of Medicine)
A. Caicedo (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine)

CELL SIGNALING IN VASCULAR SYSTEMS-Wednesday, April 24, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 205
Chair: Charles Little, Ph.D. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center)

G.E. Davis (Texas A&M Univ. System Health Science Center)
C. Little (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center)
R. Lansford (Caltech)
S.M. Majka (Baylor College of Medicine)
A.R. Hess (Univ. of Iowa)
R.J. Tomanek (Univ. of Iowa)
J.D. Potts (Univ. of South Carolina)

DEVELOPMENTAL CONTROL OF TRANSLATION & ADENYLATION-Monday, April 22, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 205
Chair: Rebecca Hartley, Ph.D. (Univ. of Iowa)
Supported by an educational grant from Promega Corp.

E. Goodwin (Univ. of Wisconsin)
C. Smibert (Univ. of Toronto)
H.B. Osborne (CNRS/Univ. of Rennes 1)
M.R. Garbrecht (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine)
M. Sheets (Univ. of Wisconsin)

ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND CONTROL OF FOOD INTAKE-Wednesday, April 24, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 204
Chair: Ayman Sayegh, D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D. (College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing & Allied Health, Tuskegee Univ.)

T.L. Powley (Purdue Univ.)
G.P. Smith (Weill Medical College, Cornell Univ.)
M. Covasa (Pennsylvania State Univ.)
E. Adeghate (United Arab Emirates Univ.)
A.I. Sayegh (Tuskegee Univ.)
M. Gershon (Columbia Univ., College of Physicians & Surgeons)

GENE EXPRESSION MONITORING & 3D-VISUALIZATION-Tuesday, April 23, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 205
Chair: Johannes Streicher, Ph.D. (Univ. of Vienna, Austria)

J. Streicher (Univ. of Vienna, Austria)
W.J. Weninger (Univ. of Vienna, Austria)
J. Sharpe (MRC Human Genetics Unit)
J. Jernvall (Univ. of Helsinki)
R. Lansford (Caltech)
G. Cheng (Medical Univ. of South Carolina)
J.F. Ji (National Univ. of Singapore)

GLIOGENESIS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM - Tuesday, April 23, 3:30-5:30 p.m., Rooms 201/202
Chair: Mahendra Rao, MBBS, Ph.D. (National Institute on Aging)

M.S. Rao (National Institute on Aging)
R.H. Miller (Case Western Reserve Univ.)
J.E. Goldman (Columbia Univ.)
M. Qui (Univ. of Louisville)
D.A. Steindler (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine)
J.A. Kessler (Northwestern Univ. Medical School)
J. Dietrich (Univ. of Rochester)

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT I- Monday, April 22, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 205
Chair: Judith Venuti, Ph.D. (LSU Health Science Center)
Supported by educational grants from BD Biosciences and Clontech

K. Muneoka (Tulane Univ.)
E. Laufer (Columbia Univ.)
C.E. Krull (Univ. of Missouri-Columbia)
*P.H. Ozdinler (Louisiana State Univ. Health Science Center)
*S. Horne-Badovinac (Univ. of California, San Francisco)
C. Zhang (Texas A&M Univ.)
M.J. Hudson (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County)
*P.Kang (Baylor College of Dentistry)

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT II- Monday, April 22, 3:30-5:30 p.m., Room 205
Chair: Patrick Nahirney (Weill Medical College, Cornell Univ. )

*D.K. Lawrence (Case Western Reserve Univ.)
G.S. Ghatnekar (North Carolina State Univ. College of Veterinary Medicine)
R.L. Leonard (North Carolina State Univ. College of Veterinary Medicine)
*K.S. Latacha (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center)
P.C Nahirney (Weill Medical College, Cornell Univ.)
A.F. Lerch-Gaggl (Medical College of Wisconsin)
J.T. Rawlins (Texas A&M Univ. System Health Science Center)
L. Li (Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham)

STEM CELL BIOLOGY - Saturday, April 20, 2:00-4:00 p.m., Rooms 201/202
Chair: Maya Sieber-Blum, Ph.D. (Medical College of Wisconsin)

M.S. Rao (National Institute on Aging)
A. Alexanian (Medical College of Wisconsin)
B.A. Link (Medical College of Wisconsin)
Y.H. Youn (Medical College of Wisconsin)
L. Song (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine)
M.V. Gurjar (Univ. of Iowa)
T.C. Lund (Univ. of Minnesota)

TEACHING INNOVATIONS IN ANATOMY -Monday, April 22, 10:45 am.-12:45 p.m., Room 206
Co-chairs: Richard Drake, Ph.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine) and Douglas Paulsen, Ph.D. (Morehouse School of Medicine)

T. Caceci (Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech)
J.R. Augustine (Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine)
P.M. Heidger, Jr. (Univ. of Iowa)
D.K. Darnell (Lake Forest College)
S.A. Miller (Hamilton College)
D. Leamon (Univ. of South Carolina)

TEACHING INNOVATIONS IN ANATOMY -Tuesday, April 23, 8:15-10:15 a.m., Room 206
Co-chairs: Richard Drake, Ph.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine) and Robert Klein(Univ. of Kansas Medical Center)

J.H. Johnson (Virginia Commonwealth Univ.)
T.R.H. Bacro (Medical Univ. of South Carolina)
R.E. Reeves (Univ. of North Texas Health Science Center)
T.O. McCracken (Visible Productions, LLC)
D.A. Morton (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine)
S. Lozanoff (Univ. of Hawaii)
B. Singh (Univ. of Saskatchewan)

TGF-BETA IN HEART & VASCULAR DEVELOPMENT-Tuesday, April 23, 10:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m., Room 204
Chair: Raymond Runyan, Ph.D. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine)

K.L. Kramer (Univ. of Utah)
E. Mironova (Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine)
P.B. Antin (Univ. of Arizona)
V. Gaussin (UMDNJ)
J.V. Barnett (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center)
R. Runyan (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine)
M. Azhar (Univ.of Cincinnati Medical Center)
D. Walpita (Harvard Medical School)

Poster Sessions

Sunday, April 21

Sunday, April 21

Tuesday, April 23

Tuesday, April 23

Tuesday, April 23

Sunday, April 21

Monday, April 22

Monday, April 22

Tuesday, April 23


American Association of Anatomists

9650 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3998
Tel: 301-634-7910 | Fax: 301-634-7965


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