2011 Annual Meeting - Washington

To view the presentations from select Education and Teaching Track sessions, click here.

April 9-13, 2011 - Washington, DC


John B. Gurdon
Distinguished Group Leader
Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute

Monday, April 11, 5:00-6:00 PM

Reversal of Cell Differentiation in Eggs and Embryos

Oocytes and eggs of mammals and amphibia have a remarkable capacity to reprogram the nuclei of adult differentiated cells towards embryonic gene expression. They achieve this with natural components and more efficiently than by transcription factor overexpression or cell fusion. The success with which reprogramming is achieved by all procedures declines dramatically as the nuclei of increasingly differentiated cells are used. Current work aims to (1) identify the reprogramming components of eggs and oocytes, and (2) to identify the components of differentiated cells that restrict the responsiveness of their nuclei to reprogramming. The mechanisms used by eggs and oocytes to reprogram somatic cell nuclei include major changes to the composition of chromatin, and involve the exchange and modification of chromosomal proteins. These changes result in a global transcription of genes. Progress in identifying reprogramming factors as well as components of chromatin that resist reprogramming will be reviewed.


Joseph W. Sanger
Professor and Chair
SUNY Upstate Medical University

Sunday, April 10, 8:00-9:00 AM
Assembly and Dynamics of Myofibrils

Myofibrils are the major structural component of muscle. To explain how these contractile structures are assembled and maintained, we have proposed a three-step model for the assembly of myofibrils in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells: premyofibrils to nascent myofibrils to mature myofibrils. This premyofibril model is supported by experiments in living muscle cells, first with dye-tagged sarcomeric proteins microinjected into living muscle cells, and later in cells transfected with plasmids encoding Green Fluorescent Protein coupled to sarcomeric proteins. One of the initially surprising results of these approaches was that the fluorescently tagged molecules were incorporated, not only into the newly assembling premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils, but also into mature myofibrils. The use of photobleaching techniques, i.e., Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching or FRAP, revealed that each sarcomeric protein has a characteristic dynamic exchange rate. This dynamic exchange mechanism, which takes place over minutes and hours in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, is advantageous, not only for remodeling during assembly, but also for testing the fitness of older proteins, and for the entry of newly synthesized proteins into myofibrils without the disassembly of myofibrils. We are currently using biophysical techniques to gain insights into the molecular properties of myopathic mutated proteins in living muscle cells.  

T. Vidhya (Vid) Persaud
Professor Emeritus
University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine

Sunday, April 10, 9:00-10:00 AM

Human Birth Defects: Development in the Wrong Direction

Birth defects are developmental disorders present at birth. Birth defects are the leading causes of infant mortality and these may be structural, functional, metabolic, behavioral, or hereditary. Teratology - the study of birth defects – bridges embryology and pathology. Paleolithic man had begun creating sculptures and drawings of malformed infants. Our understanding of the nature, causes and management of birth defects has evolved profoundly over the millennia. What are the research challenges in teratology today? How important is it for our medical and graduate students to learn embryology before undertaking clinical work and teaching in the health sciences?


Saturday, April 9

Langman Graduate Student Award Presentation
Educational Research Platform Award Presentation
Postdoctoral Platform Award Presentation

Sunday, April 10, 5:00-7:00 PM, Room 102A
Awardees to be announced in late 2010

R.R. Bensley Award Lecture in Cell Biology
C.J. Herrick Award Lecture in Comparative Neuroanatomy
H.W. Mossman Award Lecture in Developmental Biology
AAA Morphological Sciences Award Lecture

Chair: Joseph Sanger (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Sunday, April 10, 10:30 AM-12:30 PM

Diseases of the heart and skeletal muscles are major problems in our society. The causes of these diseases are often due to developmental errors. This session of four lectures is devoted to issues related to cardiac and skeletal muscles: how left-right asymmetry of the heart is established; how myofibrils, the major components of muscle cells, are assembled; how mutations in myofibrillar proteins affect cardiac function; how are somites formed; the role of cell adhesions in somite formation; and the formation of neuromuscular junctions. The role of the zebrafish as a model organism will be addressed in answering these questions.

Jeffrey Amack (SUNY Upstate Medical Univ.)
Establishing Cardiac Left-Right Asymmetry
Xiaolei Xu (Mayo Clinic College of Medicine)
Myofibrillogenesis & the Establishment of Cardiac Functions in the Developing Zebrafish
Clarissa Henry (Univ. of Maine)
Roles for Cell Adhesion during Zebrafish Muscle Morphogenesis
Michael Granato (Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Got Nerve: Making & Breaking Neuromuscular Connections

Chairs: David Bolender (Medical College of Wisconsin) & T. Vidhya (Vid) Persaud (University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine)
Sunday, April 10, 10:30 AM-12:30 PM

The central question in embryonic development is how the zygote becomes an embryo. The zygote is a single cell while the embryo is multicellular, has symmetry, and has a recognizable body plan. Messages, molecules, movements, and morphogensis each play important roles in achieving the transition from embryo to zygote. Messages resulting from differential gene expression reveal the overall plan for directing embryonic development. Molecules derived from gene expression mediate signaling pathways that determine the developmental potential of cell groups. Movements of cells or cell groups within the developing embryo position precursors for cell-cell interactions that lead to additional decisions about developmental fate. The result is the development of form or morphogenesis leading to the appearance of recognizable body regions and organ systems. During this session each speaker will describe the roles played by messages, molecules, movements, and morphogenesis in the development of the ear, the heat, the limbs, and the lungs.

Gary Schoenwolf (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine)
Signaling & Morphogenesis during Inner Ear Development
Roger Markwald (Medical Univ. of South Carolina)
Wings of the Heart: Messages that Direct Heart Mesenchyme into Fibrogenic Lineages
John Fallon (Univ. of Wisconsin)
Evidence for Local Cellular Interaction in Digital Fate Determination during Limb Development
David Ornitz (Washington Univ.)
Growth Factor Signaling Pathways in Lung Development and Cancer



Chairs: Darrell Evans (Brighton and Sussex Medical School) & Drew Noden (Cornell University)

Neural crest and placode cells show exceptional migratory capabilities and form an expansive array of derivatives. Recent research has greatly expanded our understanding of crest cell development in mammals, at both the cellular and molecular levels. The speakers in this session will offer suggestions for introducing neural crest and placode development to students in ways that go beyond didactic fate mapping and lists of derivatives. The goal, instead, is to present these processes in broader, more integrative conceptual contexts that integrate evolutionary, embryological, and biomedical aspects of craniofacial, cardiovascular, and visceral development.

Darrell Evans (Brighton & Sussex Medical School Anatomy)
Riding the Crest & Bringing Students With You
Drew Noden (Cornell Univ.)
Interactions at the Neural Crest - Mesoderm Boundary
Miles Epstein (Univ. of Wisconsin)
Long Distance Translocation of Enteric Neural Crest Cells
Jonathan Epstein (Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Neural Crest & Cardiac Development

Chair: Richard Schneider (University of California San Francisco)

To generate appropriately sized, shaped, and positioned anatomical components that are structurally and functionally integrated, a variety of neural, skeletal, muscular, vascular, epidermal, and other progenitor populations, which have distinct embryonic origins, must arise and communicate with each other. The precise nature of these signals and the dynamic developmental process through which cells and tissues differentiate and grow into various anatomical structures remain obscure. This symposium will focus on how neural crest– and placode–derived tissues acquire the spatiotemporal patterning information that establishes their hierarchical levels of organization, regulates their reciprocal signaling interactions, and defines their developmental potentials.

Marianne Bronner-Fraser (Caltech)
Gene Regulatory Interactions Mediating Formation of Neural Crest and Placodes
Laura Gammill (Univ. of Minnesota)
Neuropilin Receptors Direct Neural Crest Cell Pathway Choice & Migratory Trajectories
Raj Ladher (RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology)
Signals Controlling Olfactory Neurogenesis
Richard Schneider (Univ. of California San Francisco)
Neural Crest-dependent Interactions that Regulate Pattern & Growth


Chair: Paul Trainor (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)

Neural crest cells were first described by Wilhelm His in 1868 and over the past 138 years have fascinated developmental and evolutionary biologists alike. Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. These include bones, tendons, neurons, glia, melanocytes, connective, endocrine ,and adipose tissue. With a limited capacity for self-renewal and a wide range of differentiate fates, neural crest cells bear many of the hallmarks of stem cells and persist throughout embryonic and adult development. Neural crest cells provide a unique paradigm to study developmental processes such as morphogenetic induction, migratory behavior, and fate determination and recent advances will be discussed in this session.

Patricia Labosky (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center)
Regulation of Multipotency in the Neural Crest
Paul Kulesa (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)
The Role of Chemotaxis in Neural Crest Migration
Thomas Schilling (Univ. of California)
The Regulation of Neural Crest Cell Migration in Zebrafish
Paul Trainor (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)
Making Faces: Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Development

Chair: Sally Moody (George Washington Univ.)

During development, a specialized zone of ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate develops into a number of specialized ectodermal thickenings called cranial sensory placodes. These placodes give rise to secretory cells in the pituitary, the olfactory epithelium, the lens, and all components of the auditory and vestibular inner ear, and together with the neural crest contribute to the sensory ganglia in the head. In this symposium, the speakers will present recent findings concerning the molecular mechanisms that specify placodes and their derivatives, drawing upon studies in Xenopus zebrafish, chick and mouse.

Sally Moody (George Washington Univ.)
The Molecular Regulation of Cranial Placode Specification
Tatjana Piotrowsky (Univ. of Utah)
Migrating Placodes Give Rise to the Lateral Line System
Donna Fekete (Purdue Univ.)
Specification of Sensory Fates in the Vertebrate Inner Ear
Richard Maas (Brigham & Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School)
Development & Synthesis of Cranial Placodes


Chair: Paul Trainor (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)

Neural crest cells are formed along the entire length of the vertebrate body axis and generate a wide variety of cell types. Defects in neural crest cell formation, migration, survival, and/or differentiation often result in craniofacial, cardiac, peripheral nervous system, skin,and other birth defects. Congenital anomalies that arise through abnormal neural crest cell development are collectively called neuroscristopathies. In the 21st century, much of the focus on neural crest cells now revolves around their stem cell like characteristics and their potential in preventative and regenerative medicine. Advances in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of neurocristopathies will be discussed alongside their potential for prevention and repair.

Jonathan Epstein (Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Molecular Mechanisms of Neural Crest-related Congenital Heart Disease
Miles Epstein (Univ. of Wisconsin)
Defective Endothein Receptor B Signaling & Hirschsprung's Disease

Chair: Ann Zumwalt (Boston University)

Given the difficulty of the current academic job market, many young scientists are exploring career options outside of academia. This symposium will examine how the training an individual receives in a Ph.D. program can prepare them for non-academic careers. We will discuss skills that are transferable from academia to other careers and will hear from Ph.D.s who currently work in the fields of science policy, technology transfer, and science writing and editing, as well as from an anatomist who works in the field of veterinary anatomy.

Gina Schatteman (University of Iowa)
Leaving the Bench: How Grad School Prepares You for the Non-Academic World
Cynthia Allen (NIH)
Careers Panel: Freelance Science Editing/Writing
Rachel Cassidy (Johns Hopkins Univ.)
Careers Panel: Technology Transfer
Carmen Drahl (Chemical & Engineering News)
Careers Panel: Science Writing
Baljit Singh (Univ. of Saskatchewan)
Careers Panel: Veterinary Anatomy
Tyrone Spady (FASEB)
Careers Panel: Science Policy

Chairs: Gary Schoenwolf (University of Utah) & Kurt Albertine (University of Utah School of Medicine)

The ability to write successful grant applications is integral to career development for a biomedical researcher. Using the new NIH grant proposal as an example, experienced NIH grant writers and reviewers will discuss: 1) how to craft concise, clear, and compelling Specific Aims; 2) how to write the Approach in a clear, logical, and unified way, emphasizing the Significance of your research problem and the Innovation of your research approach; 3) what a reviewer looks for in a grant application; and 4) for applicants applying for F (NRSA) awards, or for mentors helping such applicants, how to write a career development plan. Interwoven throughout the talks will be examples of successful writing and common pitfalls to avoid.

Gary Schoenwolf (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine)
Writing Specific Aims that Sell Your Proposal
Kurt Albertine (Univ. of Utah School of Medicine)
Writing a Persuasive Research Strategy
Raymond Runyan (Univ. of Arizona)
Writing for the Reviewers: What are they Looking For?
Richard Dorsky (Univ. of Utah)
Writing a Successful NRSA


Chair: Jennifer McBride (Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine)


Chair: Kenneth Jones (The Ohio State University)

The new field of Anatomical Informatics has grown from advances in imaging and computer technologies that provide access to anatomical datasets that are applied to research, teaching and improved patient care. Continued advances in Anatomical Informatics are vital for current students who are highly visual, computer-savvy and demand web-based opportunities for learning 24/7 rather than more traditional textbooks and formal class times. Speakers will focus on dataset organization to produce high-resolution 3D models, the development of applications for teaching and learning, and opportunities for anatomists who can exploit the resources and power of Anatomical Informatics.

Kenneth Jones (The Ohio State Univ.)
Anatomical Informatics: A Bright Future for Students & Faculty
Robert Trelease (UCLA School of Medicine)
Riding New Tech Waves: How Informatics has Transformed Education & Visions of the Future
Victor Spitzer (Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center at Fitzsimons)
Anatomical Informatics: Relating Detail of the Parts to the Function of the Whole
Don Hilbelink (Univ. of South Florida)
Computer Modeling & Data Mining of Medical Images






Chairs: Anne Gilroy (Univ of Massachusetts Medical School) & David Bolender (Medical College of Wisconsin)

Embryology, while an important component of anatomical study, is only one aspect of the broader topic of developmental anatomy. Despite the striking differences between adult anatomy and that of the neonate, child and adolescent, pediatric anatomy is poorly addressed in the medical school curriculum. The goals of this session are to highlight some of these anatomic changes and demonstrate how they influence the diagnosis and treatment of the pediatric patient, and to encourage medical educators to include this pediatric perspective in their anatomy curricula.

Michael Hirsh (UMass Memorial Healthcare)
Good Things Come in Small Packages - Unique Neonatal Anatomic Features
Joseph Makris (UMass Memorial Heathcare)
Anatomical Considerations in the Toddler Critical to Pediatric Radiologic Diagnosis
Peter Dangerfield (Univ. of Liverpool)
Why Anatomy of the Growing Child Differs from the Adult
Paola Palma Sistro (Medical College of Wisconsin)
Pubertal Development: the Human Metamorphosis


Chairs: Christine Eckel (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine) & James Brokaw (Indiana University School of Medicine)


Chair: H. Wayne Lambert (West Virginia University School of Medicine)

Because the percentage of people older than age 65 is projected to double from 2000 to 2030 to represent 20% of the US population, this symposium will focus on training both educators and physicians in the anatomical changes that occur with aging. Speakers will discuss age-related changes in the cardiovascular, integumentary, male urogenital, and neurology systems and recent research in this area.

Peter Rapp (National Institute of Aging)
Lifespan, Mindspan & the Aging Brain
Gary Fisher (Univ. of Michigan)
Age-related Structural Changes that Occur in Human Skin
Trinity Bivalacqua (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions)
Rising Age, Rising Problems: The Male Lower Genitourinary Tract
Edward Lakatta (National Institute of Aging)
Arterial Aging: A Journey into Subclinical Arterial Disease


Chairs: Valerie O 'Loughlin (Indiana University-Bloomington) & Mark Terrell (Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine)

While most AAA members teach medical and professional students, many also teach anatomy to undergraduates. Undergraduate anatomy students represent a diverse population who may need and be greatly affected by teaching interventions that help them become better learners and problem solvers. In this session, we discuss some of the challenges of teaching undergraduates, present our educational research from undergraduate anatomy classrooms, and methodically assess what interventions may help this population better understand anatomy.

Valerie O'Loughlin (Indiana Univ.)
Developing Metacognitive Skills through the Use of Blogs in an Upper Level Undergraduate Anatomy Course
Mark Terrell (Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine)
Collaborative Testing: An Opportunity for Student-centered Feedback & Peer Learning


Chairs: Nadine Peyriéras(CNRS-NED Institut de Neurobiologie) & Charles D. Little (Kansas Univ. Med Center)

Three dimension + time imaging (4D) allows in vivo investigation of morphogenetic processes at all length scales. Processing and analyzing 4D data sets requires new strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation. Speakers will discuss optical recording of biological activities then phenomenological and theoretical reconstruction of 4D information and interactive visualization tools to achieve the best reconstruction and further modelling of multiscale dynamics during animal morphogenesis.

Peter Friedl (Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Centre)
Dynamic Imaging of Cancer Invasion, Plasticity, and Resistance
Richard Adams (Cambridge Univ.)
Tissue Tectonics: Toward a Quantitative Understanding of Morphogenesis
Nadine Peyriéras (CNRS)
Reconstructing Multiscale Dynamics in Vertebrate Morphogenesis
Julien Delile (CNRS)
Automated Inference of 4-D Cell Polarization Fields in an Agent-based Model of Early Vertebrate Embryogenesis

Co-sponsored by AAA's Advisory Committee for Young Anatomists
Chairs: Linda May (Kansas City Univ. of Medicine & Biosciences) & Lorinda Smith (Univ. of Utah)

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has an extensive impact on health and disease. Understanding the ANS is important for researchers as well as anatomical and clinical educators. The session will include a developmental and comparative overview of the ANS and will examine some of its far-reaching effects. Information on a variety of topics will be included, such as the ANS during pregnancy, cardiac regulation, and brain and behavior. This interesting and diverse session is co-sponsored by the Advisory Committee for Young Anatomists and will highlight the work of young scientists.

Mark Nielsen (Univ. of Utah)
Understanding the ANS: A Developmental & Comparative Approach
Julia Moffitt (Des Moines Univ.)
Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Rats Results in Anhedonia, Sympathovagal Imbalance and Increased Predisposition to Cardiac Arrhythmias
Angela Grippo (Northern Illinois Univ.)
Social Behavior, Emotion, & the Autonomic Nervous System: Insights from Animal Models
Linda May (Kansas City Univ. of Medicine & Biosciences)
Mom's & Baby's ANSwer: ANS When Exercising Regularly

Chair: Tamara Franz-Odendaal (Mount Saint Vincent Univ.)

This hybrid symposium will focus on the importance of the skeletogenic condensation in skeletal development and growth. The skeletogenic condensation is the first morphological sign of developing bone or cartilage. Despite their critical importance, the cellular dynamics within skeletogenic condensations are not well understood. Are all skeletogenic condensations the same? Two well-known skeletal biologists will discuss the evolution and development of the skeletogenic condensation and its importance for understanding skeletal morphology. Four additional speakers will be selected from submitted abstracts.

Brian Hall (Dalhousie Univ.)
The Cellular Modules of Skeletal Development & Evolution
Bjorn Olsen (Harvard Univ.)
Mesenchymal Condensations: The Architects for Morphogenesis & Growth of Skeletal Elements

Chair: Benjamin Auerbach (The Univ. of Tennessee)

Over the last four decades, researchers have increasingly used biomechanics to understand behavior and activity patterns in an evolutionary context. While the technologies used to study skeletal mechanics have improved and diversified, so have the breadth of hypotheses tested, anatomical elements examined, and species considered. This session explores current biomechanical methods and models based on research into locomotion and other activity patterns. In addition, these approaches will provide a framework for discussing our ability to reconstruct behavior from biomechanical analyses. Using this context, participants will discuss future research directions to consider in methods, hypotheses, and species employed.

Christopher Vinyard (Northeastern Ohio Univ Colleges of Medicine)
Let's Bite off More than We Can Chew: Investigating New Directions in Primate Feeding Mechanics
John Polk (Univ. of Illinois Urbana Champaign)
Experimental Approaches to Understanding Posture & Locomotion in Living & Fossil Primates
Brian Richmond (George Washington Univ.)
Investigating the Evolution of Foot Anatomy & Biomechanics from Fossil Footprints
David Burr (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine)
Bone Dynamics Informs Bone Mechanics

Chairs: Paul Kulesa (Stowers Institute for Medical Research) & Caleb Bailey (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)

The convergence of developmental biology and cancer biology has ushered in a new and exciting understanding of the complexities of tumor cell behaviors, including survival, proliferation, and metastasis. Also, a much greater emphasis is being placed on the tumor microenvironment as a significant influence on tumor cell behaviors. Aptly, the embryonic microenvironment is being increasingly used to study complex tumor cell biological questions. This session will feature topics ranging from continuing advances in intravital imaging, to modeling dynamic tumor cell behaviors, and the use of embryonic microenvironments to study cancer metastasis.

Tian Xu (Yale Univ. School of Medicine)
How Developmental Programs Contribute to Tumor Development and Progression C Lessons from Drosophila
Erik Sahai (Cancer Research UK)
How Altered Regulation of the Cytoskeleton Promotes Tumour Invasion & Metastasis
Paul Kulesa (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)
Does Melanoma Metastasis Recapitulate the Embryonic Neural Crest Invasion Program?
Bart Westerman (Univ. of Amsterdam)
Neuroblastoma Tumors Have a Hierarchy of Tumor Initiating Cells Reflecting Neural Crest Development

Co-sponsored by Developmental Dynamics
Chairs: Catherine Krull (University of Michigan) & Steven Bleyl (University of Utah)

Animal models have long provided the means to study the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of human disease and to test novel interventions. With rapid advancements in genomics and in disease gene identification, spurred greatly by the increased use of next-generation sequencing, the ability to model putative human disease-causing genes/variants in animal system becomes even more important. Speakers in this session will provide examples of research that address problems in clinical medicine using developmental approaches in animal models, human genetics, or a combination of both. Animal models of human disease in mouse, chick and zebrafish will be presented.

Catherine Krull (Univ. of Michigan)
SMN Regulates Motor Neuron Positioning in the Chick Ventral Neural Tube
Daryl Scott (Baylor College of Medicine)
Human Studies & Mouse Models Provide Insight into Diaphragm Development
Kristin Artinger (Univ. of Colorado)
Using the Zebrafish to Screen for Defects in Craniofacial Development
Steven Bleyl (Univ. of Utah)
PDGF-signaling in the Second Heart Field: Combined Evidence from Human & Mouse Studies

Chair: Andras Czirok (Kansas Univ. Medical Center)

The early (gastrulation) stage of embryo development involves a substantial and puzzling rearrangement of cells. The observed cell movements can be guided by chemotactic signaling, cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts, or resulted by large scale tissue movements which are driven by cell-generated mechanical forces. As talks of this session demonstrate, the combination of molecular tools, advanced optical microscopy, quantitative motion analysis, and computer modeling can yield valuable insights into how molecular signals, cell movements, and developmental processes are interconnected. Arguably, such a multi-scale approach is indispensable to understanding the mechanistic link between molecular signaling events and tissue or organ level morphological changes.

Kees Weijer (Univ. of Dundee)
Collective Cell Migration During Avian Gastrulation
Victor Varner (Washington Univ.)
Mechanics of Head Fold Formation: Investigating Tissue-Level Forces During Early Development
Bertrand Benazeraf (Univ. de Strasbourg)
Cell & Tissue Movements in Paraxial Mesoderm during Chicken Embryo Elongation
Andras Czirok (Univ. of Kansas Med Center)
Collective Cell Movements during Vasculogenesis

Co-sponsored by Canadian Association for Anatomy, Neurobiology & Cell Biology
Chair: Michael Kawaja (Queen's Univ.)

The Canadian Association of Anatomy, Neurobiology, and Cell Biology (CAANCB) is pleased to co-sponsor this scientific symposium entitled "Excellence in Canadian Research," in which four young investigators in the anatomical studies will be showcased. This symposium is the first of many steps toward creating a closer collegial link between CAANCB and AAA.

Lynne Postovit (Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry)
Development Undone: Cellular Plasticity in Cancer
Sari Hannila (Univ. of Manitoba)
Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Enhances Axonal Regeneration in the CNS by Downregulating Expression of Smad2
Loydie Jerome-Majewska (Research Institute-at Place Toulon)
Protein Trafficking: A Road Map for Embryogenesis
Alan Lomax (Queen's Univ.)
Remodelling of the Sympathetic Nervous System Following Peripheral Inflammation

Supported by an educational grant from Sutter Instrument Company
Chair: Brenda Rongish (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center)

The cardiovascular system is the first functional organ system. In vivo imaging of the embryonic/fetal cardiovascular system is required to formulate treatment of developmental pathologies that occur at such early stages. Direct observation and experimental studies in zebrafish and avian embryos will shed light on the origin of cardiac progenitors, cellular lineage specification, cell signaling requirements, and cell/tissue motion patterns. Genetically altered and mutant mouse models characterized using fetal echocardiography aid our understanding of the associated cardiac pathophysiologies. The featured studies demonstrate the current state of in vivo imaging as applied to normal cardiovascular morphogenesis and life-threatening congenital malformations.

Deborah Yelon (Univ. of California, San Diego)
Regulation of Cell Movements during Heart Tube Assembly in Zebrafish
Cecilia Lo (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine)
High Throughput Congenital Heart Disease Phenotyping in Mice with Noninvasive Fetal Echocardiography
Anastasiia Aleksandrova (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center)
Dynamic Imaging of Cardiac Precursor Cell Movements during Early Avian Heart Morphogenesis
Rusty Lansford (California Institute of Technology)
Dynamic Analysis of Organogenesis: Let's Start with the Heart

Chair: Martine Dunnwald (Univ. of Iowa)

Are iPS the future of stem cell therapy? Stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine and have been at the forefront of research for the past 10 years. However, they are low in number and difficult to isolate, thus their therapeutical use is challenging. New technologies like reprogramming and transfection with a few transcription factors have revolutionarized the field by allowing us to obtain pluripotent stem cells from normal somatic adult cells. This session will gather top scientists from the field of reprogramming and iPS and cover topics relevant to the technical challenges to their therapeutical use.

Angela Christiano (Columbia Univ.)
Differentiating Human iPS Cells into Keratinocytes
Su-Chun Zhang (Univ. of Wisconsin)
Directed Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Wen-Shu Wu (Maine Medical Center Research Institute)
Optimization of Reprogramming Conditions for iPS Cell Generation
Yupo Ma (Stony Brook Univ. Medical Center)
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapy for Human Diseases: Are We There Yet?

Chair: Lynne Opperman (TAMUSHSC)

Much of hard tissue engineering involves the development of scaffolds. Molecular mechanisms will drive tissue development and repair, including compatibility with scaffolds. This symposium presents work on molecular mechanisms driving hard tissue development and repair by looking at mechanisms regulating osteoblast to osteocyte transition, DSPP and DMP1 regulation of biomineralization, transcriptional and post-transciptional processes regulating chondrogenesis and bone repair and regeneration through muscle stem cell transplantation.

Sarah Dallas (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City)
Cell and Extracellular Matrix Dynamics in Skeletal Tissues
Chunlin Qin (Texas A&M Health Science Center)
Regulation of Biomineralization by Dentin Matrix Protein 1
Audrey McAlinden (Washington Univ.)
Co-transcriptional Regulation during Chondrogenesis
Johnny Huard (Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center)
Tissue Engineering Based on Muscle-derived Stem Cells: Potential Applications for Tissue Regeneration

Co-sponsored by The Anatomical Record
Chair: Lydia DonCarlos (Loyola Univ. Chicago)

Incorporation of new neurons into the adult brain is now almost universally accepted to occur in two locations; the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, but the story doesn't stop there. Neurogenesis during puberty and adulthood is also ongoing in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Critical questions about neurogenesis for all regions are whether these new neurons are functional, whether they are involved in remodeling, maintenance or repair mechanisms, what regulates neurogenesis during puberty and adulthood, and ultimately whether neurogenesis can be broadly induced and harnessed for beneficial reparative processes.

Heather Cameron (National Institutes of Mental Health)
Maturation & Function of New Neurons in the Adult Hippocampus
Jose Luis Trejo (Instituto Cajal)
Involvement of Adult Neurogenesis in Learning & Memory
Maia Kokoeva (McGill Univ.)
Neural Plasticity & the Regulation of Energy Balance
Cheryl Sisk (Michigan State Univ.)
Puberty & Brain Sexual Differentiation: Getting Organized

Chair: Takashi Mikawa (Univ. of California - San Francisco)

Defining cardiogenic stem/progenitor populations and maintaining their stemness are critical for understanding heart development and its regenerative potential. This symposium will cover current tendencies and controversies in our understandings of molecular and cell biological mechanisms that play key roles in defining cardiogenic progenitor in the embryo and their regenerative potential.

Deborah Yelon (Univ. of California, San Diego)
Definition and Dynamics of the Cardiac Progenitor Pool in Zebrafish
Ed Morrisey (Univ. of Pennsylvania)
Signaling & Epigenetic Control of Stem/Progenitor Development
Michael Bressan (Univ. of California San Francisco)
Developmental Origins of Cardiac Pacemaking Cells
Kenneth Poss (Duke Univ. Medical Center)
Mechanisms of Cardiac Regeneration in Zebrafish

Co-sponsored by the Association of Anatomy, Cell Biology & Neurobiology Chairpersons
Chair: Markus Grompe(Oregon Stem Cell Center)

Over 200 different cell types have been described in the adult human organism. Each cell type has its unique morphological, biochemical and gene expression profile, although the nuclear genome is the same in each cell. Therefore, it is the epigenetic state of cells that determines their functional identity within a multicellular organism. During development the epigenetic state of cells is altered by extrinsic signals such as growth factors, extracellular matrix, mechanical forces or hormones and historically, targeted differentiation of cells has relied on these "natural" extrinsic factors. Recently, however, it has become possible to use targeted genetic manipulations to alter the epigenetic state of cells and hence their functional identity. Typically, this approach involves forced expression of transcription factors, epigenetic modifier enzymes or microRNAs. Collectively these strategies are referred to as reprogramming. The most dramatic example of this approach is the ability to reprogram adult somatic cells such as keratinocytes to become pluripotent, i.e. induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC). This symposium will focus on cell fate conversions which can be achieved by genetic reprogramming. The generation of pluripotent cells will be discussed along with fate conversions of hepatobiliary and pancreatic lineages. Genetic reprogramming has the potential to generate many therapeutically useful cell types using readily expandable cell sources such as skin fibroblasts as starting material.

Willy Lensch (Harvard Medical School)
Disease Specific Induced Pluripotency Cells
Thomas Zwaka (Baylor College of Medicine)
Embryonic Stem Cells are Derived from the Germ Line Lineage
Maike Sander (Univ. of California, San Diego)
Molecular Cues Regulating Segregation of Pancreatic, Hepatic and Intestinal Lineages
Markus Grompe (Oregon Stem Cell Center)
In Vitro Reprogramming of Murine Gall Bladder Cells Towards the Beta Cell Fate

Chair: Eduard Dedkov (New York College of Osteopathic Medicine / NYIT)

In recent years, the search for the biological basis of sex and gender-related differences in susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has become a new frontier for discovery. The accumulating body of knowledge has revealed that sexual dimorphism in the severity, progression, and outcome of CVD cannot be attributed to sex hormones alone; it is rather a combined effect of a variety of factors, including the sex-specific differences in cellular/tissue properties and environmental factors, such as diet. This symposium will provide a forum for the discussion of novel findings evaluating contribution of these factors in sex/gender-related differences in the cardiovascular system under physiological and pathological conditions.

Vera Regitz-Zagrosek (Charité-Medical University Berlin)
Sex & Gender in Myocardial Hypertrophy
Bohuslav Ostadal (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)
Gender Differences in Cardiac Ischemic Injury & Protection: Experimental Aspects
Leslie Leinwand (University of Colorado at Boulder)
Sex-based Differences in the Response of the Heart to Stimuli

Chair: Keith Fargo (Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital)

Steroid hormones exert profound influence over the development and function of the nervous system, contributing to sex differences in both neuroanatomy and behavior. In this session, speakers will highlight discoveries that are changing the way we view the underlying processes responsible for these outcomes. Topics include the following: How do testosterone and its metabolite estradiol contribute to the formation and maintenance of neuroanatomical sex differences? How are these processes affected by genetic variation? How do maternal interactions with offspring affect nervous system development? Can we harvest the powerful effects of steroids as therapy for nervous system injuries?

Lydia DonCarlos (Loyola Univ. Chicago)
Sexual differentiation of the brain: New rules?
Juli Wade (Michigan State Univ.)
Hormonal & Genetic Regulation of Song System Differentiation in the Zebra Finch

Chair: Theresa Pape (Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital & Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine)

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a common occurrence in daily life, resulting from falls, automobile accidents, sports-related accidents and violence, among other causes. TBIs have also become the hallmark injuries associated with the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and this has brought renewed interest in and attention to the problem. The special anatomical nature of the nervous systems makes the problem of TBI all the more daunting. The cells of the nervous system have exquisitely complex dendritic and axonal projections, and their correct functioning depends on making precise electrochemical connections with up to thousands of other cells, which themselves can be located in quite distant structures. The proposed symposium will explore the unique challenges and opportunities associated with the problem of TBI. The first speaker will discuss the challenges of modeling this complex anatomical phenomenon in reproducible animal models. The second speaker will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for severe TBI by illustrating the heterogeneity of anatomical and network injuries. The third speaker will discuss similarities and differences of persons with TBI with good and poor recoveries and the possibilities for neural repair. The final speaker will discuss plasticity and rehabilitation in animal models of TBI and how this may or may not translate into clinical neurorehabilitaiton strategies.

Peter Bergold (SUNY-Downstate Medical Center)
Evaluation of Clinically Relevant Rodent Models of TBI
Theresa Pape (Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital & Northwestern Univ. Feinberg School of Medicine)
Diagnostic & Therapeutic Challenges of Persons with Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries
Walter High (Univ. of Kentucky and VAMC)
fMRI in Traumatic Brain Injury
Dorothy Kozlowski (DePaul Univ.)
Translating Plasticity & Rehabilitation in Animal Models of TBI to Humans


AAA Platform Sessions are made up of slide presentations selected from submitted abstracts.


Chair: Adam Sylvester (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology)

Chair: Joey Barnett (Vanderbilt Univ. Med Center)



Chair: Ralph Marcucio (UCSF)



Chair: Kathryn Lenz (Univ. of Maryland Baltimore)



Chair: Baljit Singh (Univ. of Saskatchewan)


New for EB 2011: AAA is partnering with APS to hold an Undergraduate Poster Session on Sunday afternoon, April 10. Undergraduates must submit an abstract (and be 1st author) by the November 8th deadline. So encourage your students to submit today!


7000-AAA Anatomy
7001-AAA Anatomy: Animal Models
7002-AAA Anatomy: Bones Cartilage & Teeth
7003-AAA Anatomy: Cardiovascular
7004-AAA Anatomy: Form and Variation
7005-AAA Anatomy: Functional Anatomy & Biomechanics
7006-AAA Anatomy: Gastrointestinal
7007-AAA Anatomy: Muscle
7008-AAA Anatomy: Neural
7009-AAA Anatomy: Pediatric
7010-AAA Anatomy: Tendons and Ligaments
7011-AAA Anatomy: Urogenital

7012-AAA Anatomy Education
7013-AAA Anatomy Education: Assessment, Curriculum and Mentoring
7014-AAA Anatomy Education: Clinical Based Approaches
7015-AAA Anatomy Education: Computer-Assisted Learning
7016-AAA Anatomy Education: Teaching Methods and Innovations
7017-AAA Anatomy Education: Undergraduate

7018-AAA Biological Anthropology

7019-AAA Bones, Cartilage & Teeth: Anatomy and Morphology
7020-AAA Bones, Cartilage & Teeth: Craniofacial
7021-AAA Bones, Cartilage & Teeth: Development
7022-AAA Bones, Cartilage & Teeth: Evolution & Anthropology
7023-AAA Bones, Cartilage & Teeth: Exercise, Biomechanics; Bioengineering
7024-AAA Bones, Cartilage & Teeth: Molecular Mechanisms
7025-AAA Bones, Cartilage and Teeth

7026-AAA Cardiovascular Biology
7027-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Aging
7028-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Anatomy & Morphology
7029-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Angiogenesis; Lymphangiogenesis; Vasculogenesis
7030-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Biomechanics; Bioengineering
7031-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Dysfunction; Disease; Genetic Disorders
7032-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Heart Development and Growth
7033-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Imaging
7034-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: New Trends
7035-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Sex & Gender Related Differences
7036-AAA Cardiovascular Biology: Stem Cells, Cell & Molecular Biology

7037-AAA Cell Biology
7038-AAA Cell Biology: Membranes, Organelles and Cytoskeleton
7039-AAA Cell Biology: Signaling & Molecular Biology

7040-AAA Development & Growth
7041-AAA Development & Growth: Birth Defects
7042-AAA Development & Growth: Craniofacial
7043-AAA Development & Growth: Hormones
7044-AAA Development & Growth: Limb Development and Growth
7045-AAA Development & Growth: Neural Crest & Placodes
7046-AAA Development & Growth: Patterning
7047-AAA Development& Growth: Gene and Protein Expression
7048-AAA Development & Growth: Reproduction

7049-AAA Extracellular Matrix

7050-AAA Imaging
7051-AAA Imaging: Anatomy
7052-AAA Imaging: Functional Imaging
7053-AAA Imaging: Technology and Methods

7054-AAA Muscle
7055-AAA Muscle: Biomechanics and Exercise
7056-AAA Muscle: Development
7057-AAA Muscle: Stem Cells and Regeneration

7058-AAA Neural Crest & Placodes
7059-AAA Neural Crest & Placodes - Development & Disease

7060-AAA Neurobiology
7061-AAA Neurobiology: Behavior; Neuropsychiatric Disorders; Disease; Aging
7062-AAA Neurobiology: Brain
7063-AAA Neurobiology: Development
7064-AAA Neurobiology: Neural Cell Biology
7065-AAA Neurobiology: Neuronal & Spinal Cord Degeneration, Repair & Regeneration
7066-AAA Neurobiology: Neuroprotection & Neuroimmunology

7067-AAA Regenerative Medicine
7068-AAA Regenerative Medicine: Organ & Tissue Regeneration
7069-AAA Regenerative Medicine: Stem Cells
7070-AAA Regenerative Medicine: Tissue Engineering

7071-AAA Sex & Gender Differences

7072-AAA Stem Cells
7073-AAA Stem Cells: Aging & Disease
7074-AAA Stem Cells: Muscle
7075-AAA Stem Cells: Wound Healing & Tissue Repair

7076-AAA Wound Healing

Hybrid & Other Platform Topics
A hybrid symposium includes two invited talks and four 15-minute oral presentations selected from abstracts; a platform session includes eight 15-minute oral presentations selected from abstracts. Abstracts not programmed in a hybrid symposium or platform session will be scheduled in an appropriate poster session.

7077-AAA Anatomy Education Research in the Undergraduate Setting
7078-AAA Back to Basics: Understanding the Dynamics of Skeletogenic Condensations
7079-AAA Early Life Experience, Brain Development & Behavior
7080-AAA Sex & Gender-based Differences in the Cardiovascular System
7081-AAA Sex on the Brain: Gender & Steroids in Nervous System Structure & Function
7082-AAA Teaching Innovations in Anatomy





American Association of Anatomists

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